Humoral Immune Response

This video is about the Steps in : 00:23Phagocytosis and Inflammation: 01:22Antigen Presentation (MHCII+Th0): 09:01B cells differentation: 11:34Primary and Secondary : 17:05—————————————————————-All information in my immunology videos are from:- Book: Immunology, Eighth Edition by David Male, Jonathan Brostoff, David Roth and Ivan Roitt- Additional research in PubMed- University lecture materials——————————————————————Types of Immune responses:- Humoral Immune response- Cellular Immune response- Immunological Memory/T-cell Tolerance- HypersensitivitySteps in Humoral Immunity:1. Antigen Enter (Extracellular antigen)2. Phagocytosis and Inflammation3. Peptide + MHCII on cell surface presented to Th04. B-cell Differentiation and Ag specific antibodyPhagocytosis and Inflammation:Phagocytosis by Professional Phagocytes: - Neutrophils, - Macrophages/Monocytes, - Mast cells and - Denditic CellSteps in Phagocytosis:Step 1: Binding- Non specific Cell Surface Receptors: - Mannose Receptor: Bind Mannose on Cell wall of microorganisms and fungi - Toll Like Receptor - CD14: Bind Lipopolysaccharide of Gram negative bacteria- C3b - C3b receptor: Indirect Opsonization (Promote binding)- Direct Opsonization: Fc-Receptor bind to Fc portion antibodyStep 2: Engulfment- By PseudopodsStep 3: Phagosome:- Oxygen Dependent Digestion: Add Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) into phagosome to kill microorganism. ROS are free radicalsStep 4: Lysosome Fusion:- Lysosomes fuse with phagosome (Attack Cell wall)- Enzymes (Proteolytic, Hydrolytic)- Antimicrobial Peptides (Defensins)- Acidic Reaction (Low pH)- Lactoferrin (Neutrophils)Step 5: Antigen Presentation- Present a part of peptide on an MHC class 2 moleculeAdditionally: Macrophage release pro-inflammatory cytokines to cause inflammation.- IL8 - Chemotaxis for Leukocytes- IL1 - Activate T-ly and Macrophages- IL6 - Activate T- and B-Lymphocytes- TNFa - Activate Endothelium (Endothelium express receptors to help neutrophils to bind and get out of blood vessel and release antimicrobial proteins)- IL12 - Activate Natural Killer Cells- IL1, IL6, TNFa has systemic response, they act as endogenic pyrogen causing fever. They can travel to the Hypothalamus to release Prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) which causes fever. Fever helps kill microorganism and increase metabolism to heal quickly. IL6 also travel to the liver to cause release of acute phase proteins (CRP and MBL)Incomplete Phagocytosis: Phagocyte not able to kill microorganismListeria: Release ListeriolysinMycobacterium: Release CatalasePresent MHCII to Naive T helper Cell:3 activation signals needed to activate Lymphocyte:- 1st signal: T cell Receptor (TCR) with CD4 and CD3 - MHCII- 2nd signal: B7 - CD28- 3rd signal: IL4 from mast cells, Th1- Naive Th0 release IL2 (Autocrine) to growNow the naive Th0 undergoes clonal expansion and differentiation into effector Th2 cells.Effector Th2 express CD40L and release IL10 (Suppresses function of Th1), Il4, IL5, IL6B cells in secondary lymphoid organs:Has BCR - B cell Receptor (IgD/IgM and signal transducers iga and igb)B cell binds to microorganism and migrates to secondary follicule and go as close to paracortex (T cell zone) as possible to meet Th2 cell3 activation signals needed to activate naive B-cell: T-cell dependent B cell differentiation- 1st signal: bind microorganism- 2nd signal: B-cell binds to active Th2 through MHCII-TCR, CD40-CD40L- 3rd signal: IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL2, IFNg (according to what kind of antibody we need)Now B-cell differentiate into Memory B-cell and Plasma CellT independent b cell differentiation:When naive B cell binds to a microorganism (mostly carbohydrates), a strong signal activates the B cells into only miu plasma cells releasing IgM.Primary and Secondary :During first exposure: IgM release first, then IgG after. The amount of IgG is higherDuring second exposure of same antigen: IgM - same response, IgG give a stronger and quicker response.

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