CIMA - HUMOR ( NUSJA E KULLERIT)

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2015 AP Biology free response 2 a b

Questions on cellular respiration.

Habanera kvartet - I Need a Hero - Bonnie Tyler

String Quartet

[스타더스트] 리처드 용재 오닐 & 신지아 Richard Yongjae O'Neill & Zia Hyunsu Shin '파사칼리아 Passacaglia'

Music: Handel/Halvorsen ‘Passacaglia in g minor for Violin and Viola’Artists: Violist Richard Yongjae O’Neill, Violinist Zia Hyunsu ShinProduced by CREDIA StarshipFilmed at ODE Maison연주: 바이올리니스트 신지아, ㅣ비올리스트 리처드 용재 오닐연주곡 :헨델/할보르센파사칼리아 g단조#리처드용재오닐 #신지아 #파사칼리아 파사칼리아는 통주저음이 바탕이 된 바로크 시대의 다성음악 춤곡이다.헨델의 건반악기를 위한 모음곡 7번 6악장의 파사칼리아를 노르웨이 출신의 작곡가 요한 할보르센(1864~1935)이 바이올린과 비올라를 편곡하여 널리 알려졌으며, 원곡보다 유명할 정도다. 원곡에서는 격정적인 선율과 화성이 건반악기의 날카로운 음색으로 나타난다면, 할보르센은 바이올린과 비올라로 원곡 느낌을 유지하면서 현악기의 매력을 잘 살리도록 편곡했다.스타더스트 라이브 시리즈 / STARDUST LIVE SERIES짜릿한 클래식을 경험하라! 천부적인 재능을 뿜어내는 황홀한 매력을 뜻하는 스타더스트(Stardust)는 크레디아 소속 클래식 스타 연주자들의 프로젝트이다. 비올리스트 리처드 용재 오닐, 바이올리니스트 신지아, 피아니스트 지용 등 더불어 눈부신 클래식 연주자들이 들려주는 빠져나올 수 없는 클래식 음악의 진짜 매력을 들려주고 보여주기 위해 시작된 뮤직비디오 시리즈이다.

AULA 5-1 - Anticorpos (Ig's) e Resposta Imune Humoral

►Essa aula explica de uma forma completa sobre a definição, estrutura e funções gerais dos anticorpos (imunoglobulinas)►Falando sobre os seguintes assuntos: O que são imunoglobulinas, o que é sistema imune humoral, estrutura dos anticorpos, diferenças da resposta imune humoral primária e secundária e as funções dos anticorpos.►Mostra de forma curta e divertida a apresentação de antígenos e a produção de anticorpos.►As explicações são de fácil entendimento, sendo focado no aprendizado total (até dos mais leigos), contando com uma revisão/resumo que serve como bizu para períodos de prova!►E conta com um melhoramento no formato do vídeo, com musica no fundo e utilização de revisão.►Instituições que estão "antenadas" no Immunity (Você pode sugerir sua instituição também!):UFPB, UEPB, UFCG, UFPE, UFRPE, UFRN, UFMG, UFBA, UFES, UFAL, CIÊNCIAS MÉDICAS-PB, UNIPE, USP, UFRJ, MACKENZIE, PUC......►As aulas desse canal são material de acompanhamento acadêmico e estudantil para estudantes do ensino médio e superior que estão querendo complementar os estudos de uma forma melhor e mais efetiva.►É indicado para os cursos superiores de: Enfermagem, Biologia, Odontologia, Medicina, Medicina Veterinária, Fisioterapia, Biotecnologia, Biomedicina, Farmácia, Nutrição, Terapia Ocupacional, Serviço Social....(Se seu curso não estiver aqui, pode sugerir!)►REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS:✎MURPHY, K.; TRAVERS, P.; WALPORT, M. Imunobiologia de Janeway. Porto Alegre: ArtMed, 7ª edição. 2008✎ABBAS, Abul K.; LICHTMAN, Andrew H.;PILLAI, Shiv. Imunologia Celular e Molecular. Rio de Janeiro. Elsevier, 7ª edição. 2011Musicas Utilizadas:►Artist: Bulby.Channel:- Lying Coldly 8 Bit Bulby, you are awesome!►Vibe Tracks - Dana(Youtube Audio Library)

MEXICOMEDIA (Show completo Los Tres Tristes Tigres)

Para la gente que no tuvo la oportunidad de ver nuestro show MEXICOMEDIA en vivo y en directo, aquí se los dejamos peladito y en la boca... o sea editadito y en YouTube.Ojalá que les guste, va con todo y Mariachi, sí señor!!!Póngale play!!!★ Suscríbete para ver nuevos videos Sigue nuestras historias en Instagram invitamos a vernos en vivo con nuestro nuevo show "NO ES CONCIERTO"Cosas que tal vez no sepas:✔ Somos un SHOW de COMEDIA ✔ Hacemos comedia en vivo desde el '09 (Videos desde 2013)✔ Puedes ver otros 2 shows completos en YouTubeObrando en Grande: Fama y Échate a Reír: Estamos de gira por México y EUA ♫ Escúchanos en Spotify Instagram Facebook Twitter - Ecléctica Producciones1987 8243 • (81) 1985 1674

Cima, Leci Gugjumi i katunarit

Wild Animals That SAVED Human Lives!

Follow us on instagram! For New Videos! our "REAL Mermaid Sightings Around The World!" video here: our "Most Amazing Cities Found UNDERWATER!" video here: our "Most EXPENSIVE Private Jets Owned By BILLIONAIRES!" video here: LIONS SAVE KIDNAPPED SCHOOLGIRLIn rural southwestern Ethiopia in June 2005, a twelve-year-old girl was kidnapped by seven men while on her way home from school. The men were attempting to force her into a marriage she did not want and was obviously too young for. The girl’s captors held her in a hut and attempted to relocate her a week later as they evaded the police, but to their surprise they were chased away from the girl by three lions. 8. DEER CHASES ATTACKER AWAYIn February 2012, an Oxford, Ohio woman was attacked and dragged behind a building after leaving a party. The assailant, who seemed intent on robbing the woman, tried choking her with her purse straps.7. BEAVER COMFORTS ORPHANED BOYA young boy from Ontario, Canada named Rheal Guindon was camping with his parents when they decided to go fishing. Rheal stayed behind on the shore while his mom and dad headed out on a boat. Within minutes of their departure, the boat Rheal’s parents were using tipped and sank. Rheal helplessly watched from land as they drowned. 6. GORILLA SAVES 3-YEAR-OLD BOYIn August 1996, one parent’s worst nightmare came true when their three-year-old tumbled into a gorilla exhibit at the Brookfield Zoo in Illinois. As the boy lied on the concrete below, surrounded by some seven gorillas, zoo visitors panicked and cried out for help.5. DOLPHINS SAVE LIFEGUARDS FROM SHARKSIn 2004, lifeguard Rob Howes and three teenage lifeguards, including his daughter, decided to take a swim at Ocean Beach near Whangarei, New Zealand. Suddenly, they were encircled by seven bottlenose dolphins. A dolphin followed Howes and one of the lifeguards as they drifted from the rest of the group. 4. WHALE SAVES WOMAN FROM SHARKNan Hauser was swimming off the Cook Islands in October 2017 when a humpback whale seemingly randomly appeared nearby. The whale repeatedly bumped into the woman with its head and belly and attempted to carry her on its belly, back, and head. It also tried to put Nan under its pectoral fin several times.3. BEAR SAVES MAN FROM MOUNTAIN LIONIn 2012, a 69-year-old northern California man named Robert Biggs was attacked by a mountain lion while hiking. During one of his many gold-panning and hiking trips to Whiskey Flats, he encountered a mother bear, her yearling, and her cub on a stream bank.2. DOLPHINS SAVE FISHERMANIn 2002, a 36-year-old Australian fisherman named Grant Dickson was sailing off the coast of Queensland when his fishing boat sank. The boat went down in rough waters near Dunk Island after its nets got caught on seaweed.1. ELEPHANT SAVES GIRL FROM TSUNAMIWhen the tragic 2004 tsunami struck Thailand, eight-year-old Amber Mason was riding a four-year-old elephant named Ningnong at a resort in Phuket. The water quickly rose to Ningnon’s shoulders as he dashed away from the water and to higher ground, carrying little Amber to safety on his back.Origins Explained is the place to be to find all the answers to your questions, from mysterious events and unsolved mysteries to everything there is to know about the world and its amazing animals!

Try Not To Laugh | Middle Eastern Comics | Laugh Factory Stand Up Comedy

This Try Not To Laugh episode features some of the Middle Eastern comics who have played the Laugh Factory stage: Ariana Basseri, Ahmed Bharoocha, Dan Ahdoot, Max Amini, Maz Jobrani, Kumail Nanjiani, Fahim Anwar, and K-Von. See a LIVE SHOW at the Hollywood Laugh Factory! BUY TICKETS: Laugh Factory:Facebook: Official Website: us what you thought in the comments. Please click thumbs up and add this video to your favorites if you LOL'd.

P.I. Tchaikovsky - violin concerto - 2nd mov canzonetta - Piano Accompaniment

Violin Score:

Արդարության հետքերով՝ Անահիտ մրցանակաբաշխություն (Լավ երեկո)

Public TV Company of Armenia 2019 Facebook: #ԱռաջինԱլիք #ԼավԵրեկո

Stripes - Graduation Scene

funny

🚨🚨HUMOR MEXICANO 100% PARA VALIENTES | IMPOSIBLE NO REÍRTE🚨🚨🚨

SUSCRIBETEEEE 7U7#HumorMexicano#PuroHumorMexicano2019#TopViral2019#VideoDeRisa 2019#LOSVÍDEOS MAS GRACIOSOS DE MÉXICO 2019#TOPSalamexicana 2019● Si te ríes pierdes, es una recopilación de MEMES* y Videos (editados) con fines de Entretenimiento.Lo más viral de las redes sociales como (Instagram, twitter, facebook, Tik Tok).Vines, Sketch (todo guionizado) Parodias, Doblajes.Deja tu gran y zukhulento LIKESi quieres un saludo activa la campanitaSi eres nuevo por el canal no te olvides suscribirte!!#videosrandom#sdlg#HailGrasa#ElMexicanazo#SiTeRiesPierdes#HumorViralMexicano#PuroHumorMexicano#VideosGraciosos#vinemania

NEW JET LI ACTION MOVIE 2018 (Fist Of Legend)

Immunology mcq on innate immune response

Humoral Immune Response

This video is about the Steps in : 00:23Phagocytosis and Inflammation: 01:22Antigen Presentation (MHCII+Th0): 09:01B cells differentation: 11:34Primary and Secondary : 17:05—————————————————————-All information in my immunology videos are from:- Book: Immunology, Eighth Edition by David Male, Jonathan Brostoff, David Roth and Ivan Roitt- Additional research in PubMed- University lecture materials——————————————————————Types of Immune responses:- Humoral Immune response- Cellular Immune response- Immunological Memory/T-cell Tolerance- HypersensitivitySteps in Humoral Immunity:1. Antigen Enter (Extracellular antigen)2. Phagocytosis and Inflammation3. Peptide + MHCII on cell surface presented to Th04. B-cell Differentiation and Ag specific antibodyPhagocytosis and Inflammation:Phagocytosis by Professional Phagocytes: - Neutrophils, - Macrophages/Monocytes, - Mast cells and - Denditic CellSteps in Phagocytosis:Step 1: Binding- Non specific Cell Surface Receptors: - Mannose Receptor: Bind Mannose on Cell wall of microorganisms and fungi - Toll Like Receptor - CD14: Bind Lipopolysaccharide of Gram negative bacteria- C3b - C3b receptor: Indirect Opsonization (Promote binding)- Direct Opsonization: Fc-Receptor bind to Fc portion antibodyStep 2: Engulfment- By PseudopodsStep 3: Phagosome:- Oxygen Dependent Digestion: Add Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) into phagosome to kill microorganism. ROS are free radicalsStep 4: Lysosome Fusion:- Lysosomes fuse with phagosome (Attack Cell wall)- Enzymes (Proteolytic, Hydrolytic)- Antimicrobial Peptides (Defensins)- Acidic Reaction (Low pH)- Lactoferrin (Neutrophils)Step 5: Antigen Presentation- Present a part of peptide on an MHC class 2 moleculeAdditionally: Macrophage release pro-inflammatory cytokines to cause inflammation.- IL8 - Chemotaxis for Leukocytes- IL1 - Activate T-ly and Macrophages- IL6 - Activate T- and B-Lymphocytes- TNFa - Activate Endothelium (Endothelium express receptors to help neutrophils to bind and get out of blood vessel and release antimicrobial proteins)- IL12 - Activate Natural Killer Cells- IL1, IL6, TNFa has systemic response, they act as endogenic pyrogen causing fever. They can travel to the Hypothalamus to release Prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) which causes fever. Fever helps kill microorganism and increase metabolism to heal quickly. IL6 also travel to the liver to cause release of acute phase proteins (CRP and MBL)Incomplete Phagocytosis: Phagocyte not able to kill microorganismListeria: Release ListeriolysinMycobacterium: Release CatalasePresent MHCII to Naive T helper Cell:3 activation signals needed to activate Lymphocyte:- 1st signal: T cell Receptor (TCR) with CD4 and CD3 - MHCII- 2nd signal: B7 - CD28- 3rd signal: IL4 from mast cells, Th1- Naive Th0 release IL2 (Autocrine) to growNow the naive Th0 undergoes clonal expansion and differentiation into effector Th2 cells.Effector Th2 express CD40L and release IL10 (Suppresses function of Th1), Il4, IL5, IL6B cells in secondary lymphoid organs:Has BCR - B cell Receptor (IgD/IgM and signal transducers iga and igb)B cell binds to microorganism and migrates to secondary follicule and go as close to paracortex (T cell zone) as possible to meet Th2 cell3 activation signals needed to activate naive B-cell: T-cell dependent B cell differentiation- 1st signal: bind microorganism- 2nd signal: B-cell binds to active Th2 through MHCII-TCR, CD40-CD40L- 3rd signal: IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL2, IFNg (according to what kind of antibody we need)Now B-cell differentiate into Memory B-cell and Plasma CellT independent b cell differentiation:When naive B cell binds to a microorganism (mostly carbohydrates), a strong signal activates the B cells into only miu plasma cells releasing IgM.Primary and Secondary :During first exposure: IgM release first, then IgG after. The amount of IgG is higherDuring second exposure of same antigen: IgM - same response, IgG give a stronger and quicker response.

Extranjera REACCIONA al CHAVO DEL 8!

▶ Paypal Donaciones, (estoy ahorrando Para recorrer TODO MEXICO. No es obligatorio, solo si quieres carnal xD) : Suscríbete gratis: #CDMX▶ Tiendita: para el MUNDO : Personal: Instagram: @EllieOficial▶Instagram: @SomosPaisanos (ORG)▶ Twitter: @EllieOficial7▶Mis canciones en Spotify: Mis canciones en Youtube (Gratis): Este video presentado pertenece a: material es usado para critica, educación y reacción. (Fair use). If you don’t want this video to be on my channel as promoting your work, you can contact me and it will be deleted it from my YT asap. Thank you!Este vídeo fue una creación audiovisual que se baso en la recopilación de distintos medios visuales para realización de este vídeo. La Ley de Copyright de los Estados Unidos de América especifica que todo vídeo cuyo propósito sea entretenimiento, reportaje, educación, investigación o comentario no infringe los derechos originales de los contenidos y por lo tanto se considera "Uso Justo" "Fair Use" bajo la ley estadounidense.----------------------------------------­­---------------------------------------­-­---------------------Ellie Always----------------------------------------­­---------------------------------------­-­---------------------▶ Preguntas Frecuentes:▶ Porqué te gusta México? : Crecí admirando su cultura y su gente con talento. Crecí con programas como "El chavo del 8" y novelas de Thalia. Luego tuve la oportunidad de conocer más sobre México gracias a que conocí a mis mejores amigos que son Mexicanos. Amo su gente y la calidez humana de los Mexicanos. (Sobre todo el aguacate jeje).▶ De donde sos? : Soy de Uruguay, se que muchos me confunden con que soy de Argentina, pero los Uruguayos y los Argentinos tenemos casi el mismo acento. ▶ Cada cuanto subes videos? : Toditos los días.▶ Soy cantante y actriz.▶ Mandas saludos en todos los videos? : Sí, en todos los videos intento mandar saludos a todos los que me pidan.▶ Vivirías en México? : Definitivamente si, espero tener la chance de ir pronto.

Lalushi -Baskia -Meti- intervista -humor 2018

Publisher: OnAir Media // © 2017 ART LALI PRODUCTION. All Rights Reserved. Follow ART LALI PRODUCTION

Cima, Fiza, Lala - Nana te Mjeku

Effector Mechanisms of Humoral Immunity (Raje)

Dr. Nikita Raje reviews Chapter 13 of Abbas that deals with mechanisms of humoral immunity.

North Korea vs The United States - Who Would Win The War?

North Korea's manpower is half the size of United States man power. United States has a population that has 120 million people fit for service. That means almost 40% of The United States population (316 million) could serve in the army.1.4 million people are currently active personal and additional 850,000 are in the reserve. However if both sides were to account for their reserve personnel, North Korea would have a manpower that is 2.5 bigger than the US.But manpower is just the tip of both countries armies. The main weapons to consider are the land units. North Korea has 1600 Self-Propelled Guns, 3,500 Towed Artillery and700 Multiple-Launch Rocket Systems while the US has SPGs 1,934, Towed-Artillery: 1,791, MLRSs: 1,330. In the air, United States beats North Korea without a doubt. NK has only 940 aircrafts compared to the US's 13,700. The most popular one that the Americans use is f-16 Fighting Falcon. The F-16 was developed in the states.In the sea, United States loses 2:1. But only in numbers. The US has the strongest Navel Power: 10 Aircraft Carriers, 15 Frigates, 62 Destroyers, 72 Submarines, 13 Costal Defense Crafts, and 13 Mine Warfares. At the end of the day, United States could end this war in a blink.The US has over 5000 Nuclear Warheads. If it wanted, it could destroy the whole world. It's 'enemy' in this case has 0 confirmed warheads that could reach the coast of North America. And let's say that the war did start and the US decided to not use the atomic bomb, they would still win sincethey have their own oil reserves. The opposition has to relay on imported oil and the US could have easily disrupted these trades.So whodo you think would win this war? Do you think North Korea has a chance or do you think it would have been destroyed by The United States? Let us know in the comments and if you think our assessment is wrong, don't hesitate to point out how!SUBSCRIBE TO OUR CHANNEL -► Military Comparisons Playlist -► channel -► made by us and others -►

Pool Dive Fail

2016 Jukin Media Verified (Original)* For licensing / permission to use: Contact - licensing(at)jukinmediadotcom

Ամուսնացածների Լիգա Սերիա 26 / Amusnacacneri Liga seria 26 / HD

Նոր հումորային սիտքոմ «Ամուսնացածների լիգա», որը պատմում է ամուսնացած 3 զույգերի կյանքի մասին: Որակյալ և սուր հումորը հետապնդում է Ձեզ ամբողջ սերիայի ընոացքում: Բարձրացրեք ձեր տրամադրությունը...

Baskia - Breshka // Humor 2019

per ti shikuar videot me te reja !!!gjitha drejtat Video & Audio janë të rezervuara nga Produksioni ARDI Ndalohet kopijimi Video dhe Audio apo editimi në kanalet tjera tjera muzikore

Clasificacion de las mujeres segun los cubanos Limay Blanco 2016

Limay Blanco 2016

Antolin El Pichón se reencuentra con Carlos Otero

América TeVe, TN3, 9pm. Más por americateve.com

S. Koussevitzky - Chanson Triste

정하영 더블 베이스 독주회예일대학교 모스 리싸이틀홀 2014쿠세비츠키- 샹송 트리스테link to other pieces from the setAndante Miniature at Yale UniversityHa Young Jung, Double BassMiles Fellenberg, Piano

The Battle of Lechfeld 955 AD

Support BazBattles on Patreon: used:Impact Allegretto - Kevin MacLeodImpact Andante - Kevin MacLeodBarbarians at the Gates - Richard BeddowFire Ice - Richard BeddowMany thanks to my generous Patreon supporters: Admiralwaffles, Ed Nark, Giancarlo Andujo, Aust, James T Crawford, Matthew Rushing, Tobias Arvidsson, Victor Degliame, The Gorilla Shaman Show, Justin Smith, Markus Varli, TraJon, Anders "Gaztro" Nyhammer, Daisho, Mayonnaise, Fahad Al Mandil, Patrick Riordan and Admiral Hill!

Llogje Kavaje - Humor Shqip

Aktrojne: Endrin AjdiniProducent Haxhi Isufi----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Subscribe: Mos harroni te abonoheni ne kanalin tone qe te njoftoheni per cdo humor te ri qe do hidhet.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Na ndiqni edhe ne:Facebook:

SI TE RIES PIERDES NIVEL DIOS (9789% IMPOSIBLE) 😂

========= ❤Abreme I do not bite ❤ =========• YOU RISE LOSS LEVEL GOD (9789% IMPOSSIBLE)Laughter videos, funny videos 2019, if you laugh you loseI hope you like it and if so, you already know what to doShare, like, subscribe ❤🌟 About the videos🌟Song of my intro: Parov stelar - booty SwingSong of my outro: Dance My cumbia🔰 Info From my 🔰• I am 16 years old ✌• I live in Colombia 🇨🇴• I like pizza xd 🍕• Also play Videogames 🎮• Listen to Music (Of all kinds) 🎶🔶 RECOMMENDED VIDEOS 🔶✔⚫COMPARTE ✔⚫SCRIBE ✔⚫ACTIVA LA CAMPANITA 🔔✔🔴SIGUEME🔴 🔴🔲 DISCORD SERVER 🔲✔ / ▒ /│▒│ / ▒ /│▒ / ▒ / ─┬─┐│▒│▒ | ▒│▒│┌┴─┴─┐-┘─┘│▒┌──┘▒▒▒│└┐▒▒▒▒▒▒┌┘└┐▒▒▒▒┌┘Subscribe: 3#ELKHEVIN #SiTeRiesPierdes #risaLα cσpiα dε εstε vidεσ sεяα dεnunciαdα.Tσdσs lσs Dεяεcнσs Rεsεяvαdσscσρчяιgнτ © EL KHEVIN

Putumayo Presents - Congo To Cuba

Baba - Humor Shqip

Aktrojne: Xhemal Muftiu (Kacja), Edmond Halili, Vilson Gjocaj, Besart Kallaku dhe Enver BukriProducent Haxhi Isufi----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Subscribe: Mos harroni te abonoheni ne kanalin tone qe te njoftoheni per cdo humor te ri qe do hidhet.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Na ndiqni edhe ne:Facebook:

Ministria e Shyhretit - Episodi 25 (Katunarët vs. Qytetarët)

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Hypersensitivity Type 1 2 3 4, Urticaria Anaphylaxis Immune Complexes I II III IV

AHEAD:0:26 – Definition of Hypersensitivity1:12 – Mnemonic for remembering the 4 types2:58 – Type I (Type 1) HS 6:48 – Anaphylactic Shock7:45 – Type II (Type 2) HS 8:57 – Type III (Type 3) HS and Immune Complexes10:29 – Type IV (Type 4) HSHypersensitivity is when an otherwise healthy immune system has an undesirable exaggerated response to a foreign substance (or perceived foreign substance) that damages the body’s own cells. These are the same immune processes that are necessary to prevent infection, but they create problems when they are hyperactive or misguided. The way I remember the four different types of hypersensitivity is my ABCD mnemonic. I = Allergic Anaphylaxis and AtopyII = antiBody III = immune ComplexIV = Delayed * Types I, II and III all can involve antibodies. Therefore, having antibody in the mnemonic for type II may be confusing. However, the “classic” role of antibody involving complement activation, NK cell activation and opsonization are part of Type II which is why I feel that is the simplest way to remember it. Type I Hypersensitivity is triggered by an innocuous foreign substance (like dust, pollen or animal dander) that would cause no problems in the majority of people. The antigen simultaneously binds more than one membrane bound IgE on a mast cell (or basophil). This process, called Crosslinking, triggers the release of mast cell granules full of histamine. Histamine then goes on to signal the various changes associated with allergies similar to how it functions during acute inflammation. This allergic reaction happens almost instantly and the symptoms can become evident within minutes. This is possible because the mast cells are Pre-Sensitized to the innocuous substance which means they have pre-formed membrane bound IgE that recognizes the particular innocuous antigen. To be pre-sensitized the immune system must have seen the antigen previously, because antibody (IgE) formation takes time. Histamine’s role in Type I Hypersensitivity is why Anti-Histamines (Histamine Antagonists) like Diphenhydramine or Loratidine can control some allergy symptoms. Type I Hypersensitivity is the process that leads to various different “allergies”. A more mild form would include Allergic Rhinitis (seasonal allergies) that cause things like coughing, sneezing, watery eyes and nasal congestion. Some individuals with these allergies also experience an atopic rash referred to as Urticaria (Hives) or Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema). This red rash is raised and pruritic (itchy). Through a similar mechanism Type I Hypersensitivity can lead to exacerbation of Allergic Asthma by environmental triggers. This type of hypersensitivity is also the mechanism behind more serious conditions like peanut or bee sting allergies that can lead to swelling of the lips/tongue/throat, shortness of breath, stridor, and anaphylactic shock. Anaphylatic shock is a life threatening condition in which systemic histamine directed inflammation causes hypotension via global vasodilation, an increase in vascular permeability and significant fluid movement into the tissue. It is treated with epinephrine, often in the form of an “Epi Pen” when outside of a medical setting. Epinephrine activates Alpha-1 Adrenergic Receptors to raise blood pressure via vasoconstriction and increased contractility of the heart. Type II Hypersensitivity is the process by which IgG or IgM binds to a cell to cause injury or death (Antibody Dependent Cytotoxicity). This process has the same mechanism of action as normal humoral immunity except it is targeted at the body’s own cells instead of pathogens. The variable region of the antibody binds to the host cell while the constant portion interacts with NK cells, complement and macrophages. Examples of this reaction can be seen in Rheumatic Fever (body’s own cell look similar to Strep Pyo), Goodpasture Syndrome (Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies) and Hemolytic Disease of Newborns/Erythroblastosis Fetalis (when a Rh- mother has a second Rh+ child and the maternal IgG targets fetal RBCs).The text for this video is too long for Youtube and exceeds the maximum allowed video description length. To read the rest of it go here

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